Chapter XI - Cosmos University
XI - 01: Cosmic rules
XI - 02: Course 1 - Found your life on the right basis
XI - 03: Course 2 - Towards a Superior State of Conscience
XI - 04: Course 3 - Acquisition of the shamanic conscience
XI - 05: Course 4 - How to reach the Absolute
XI - 06: Course 5 - The fundations of an authentic civiization
XI - 07: Course 6 - The model of eco-development - The "Children of the earth"'s civilization
XI - 08: Course 7 - Definition of an authentic civilization - The "Children of the Cosmos".
Part 7 - Course 6
"To teach superstitions as truth is the most terrible thing" Hypatia
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The American Indians' réhabilitation.
500 years of American Indian resistance.
The ecological teaching of the primal People.
Wisdom of the primal People.
The primal People's excellent techniques of management of the nature.
Foundation Ampewi Numpa
The School of the future leaders of the world
THE MODEL OF ECO-DEVELOPMENT
The"children of the Earth"s civilization
6.01 The American Indians' Rehabilitation
Not any People has ever been that much studied by the ethnologists, in spite of the general -totally erroneous- idea that we have about them. They suffer because when they look at the Westerners, they know that the excuses we give to justify what we have done to them are lies. And these lies became for the public an historical truth: now, regarding my Indian friends I have to re-establish -even briefly- the truth on the essential facts.
To dispossess them from their lands we had a dishonest argument that is still believed nowadays. And today I would like to re-establish the truth, as an obligation towards my friends. So, let's now look over our lies and mistakes conerning them and their land:I - The main reason put forward by the whites to justify their spoiling action was:"These vast arable and workable lands can't remain a hunting reserve for savages who refuse agriculture".
"The uncultivated and too lazy Indians are not able to work the land".
Reality is quite different: these "savages from both Americas who did not know agriculture" taught us to grow some plants and vegetables they had selected for millenaries: rubber trees to make rubber, coffee, chocolate, tobacco, tomatoes, potatoes, manioc, corn, squash, beans, melons, water melons, chilies, and so much more!
The Indians created maize by the selection of teosinte
Without the work of the Indians, are meal would be very poor! At Valdivia, on Pacific coast of Equator in South America, a group of archeologists found a florishing sedentary civilization based on agriculture dating from 6.000BC, of which ceramics are admirable. The agriculture of the Indians is at least as ancient as the agriculture from Mesopotamia, and may be more. And the same nomad tribes were practicing a light agriculture.
According to some sources, the culture of maize would go back 80.000 years in the past! It does not look weird to me, in so far as the human teething can make us suppose the same thing. In fact, some scientists estimate that the Homo Erectus was already a light farmer, because of the discovery of tools made of stone that could only have a farm use.In any case, the whites could hardly call "agriculture" the mixt cultures of the Indians: which were different species of plants, growing at different moments of the year; and some of these plants could also be used as "props" for the other plants. And the wites were considering this intelligent agriculture as "savage"...
If the Red-Skins did not bequeath to us their plants... here is what would have happened: the Italians wouldn't know the tomato sauce, the polenta and the melons; the Belgiums would not eat French fries; the Swiss would not know chocolate; Thai people would have to do without Chili; Davidoff would have never known tobacco, and everybody would have to do without coffee.
The white used the systematical destruction of the Indians' cultivated fields, to subdue most of their tribes. In this way, for example, George Washington gave the order to the General John Sullivan to "not conquer, but destroy the Indian territory". Sullivan obeyed Washington and destroyed 40 villages, 2 million kilos of wheat, and wrecked a so huge quantity of fields and orchards that the Indians nicknamed him "Corncutter". The whites also destroyed their orchards of thousands of peach trees, etc... And the same tactic was applied with the bisons: "Each bison killed is a dead Indian" said the American Generals.
II - The second reason put forward was:«The lack of civilization and writing»
«The conquest of this continent by the whites to civilize the savages is wanted by God.»
Well, let's have a look at the real facts:The "young" United States of America copied their Constitution on the one of the Confederation of 6 Iroquois Nations that Benjamin Franklin admired.
In 1830, President Andrew Jackson confiscated the land of the "savage" Cherokees, in the name of this principle.
1830: The trail of sorrows, deportation of the Cherokees
Whom Cherokees in 1821 -thanks to a genius named Sequoyah- invented an alphabet; built a printing house; then published a newspaper in their own language and had translated some extracts from the Bible, as many of them were Christian; They were living in houses; had vast plantations and even owned black slaves; they built a textile factory to improve the sales of their cotton productions.
These facts did not prevent the U.S.A to deport them in Oklahoma, which lead to the destruction of this People that was drawing up a Constitution, because they wished to join the American Federation.
From1813 to 1814, the Cherokees were fighting at Horseshoe Bend by the side of Andrew Jackson, during the war of the Creeks. And during one of the battle a Cherokee saved the life of Jackson. What a gratitude from Jackson! Anyway...
The Spanish, after they burnt the books of the Mayas and the Aztecs in the name of the Catholic religion -which is an irreparable loss for humanity, asserted that these Indians didn't know the writing! And this idea is still widely held: by definition, the Indians are savages; so it would be very improper that they had knew the writing, wouldn't it?!
Indian languages reflect a vast culture and had precise words for everything at their disposal: contrary to our languages that have a lot of gaps. The Sioux, to speak fluently the Lakota, used a vocabulary rich of more than 15.000 words. We know this, particularly because the specialists estimated that Tatanka Yotanka -more famous under the name of Sitting Bull- had used 15.000 different words in his speeches aimed to the Whites: these speeches are kept in the US' archives. French language has more words, but when you consider that the average French only uses 1.500-2.000 different words: who should be qualified of primitive?
The Europeans who set off on the conquest of the Americas at the 15th and 16th centuries, were leaving the Inquisition where people were burnt on stakes and quartered in public, and where the most horrible tortures were practiced in the name of the Religion; at these times, the Whites ignored hygiene and science. They discovered and destroyed civilizations more advanced and developed than the European civilizations: in Mexico, Yucatan, Peru, and even North America.
Firearms, steel arms, insatiable avarice, and total lack of scruples: were the only advantages the Europeans had when they fought the Indian tribes or empires. And all the accounts agree that the Indians welcomed the Whites well: the white settlers would have never survived if the Indians did not help them. This is the truth.
Note:About the admirable Valdivia, you should read: " Valdivia. Discovery of the most ancient American civilization" by Peter Baumann -published by Robert Laffont.)
About the bewildering history of the Cherokees, I advise you to read: "The trail of sorrows", an historical novel by William Humphrey - published by Gallimard.)
The Sioux language does not have swearwords, and no obscene words. They obviously have words to indicate the things related to the sex: but it doesn't cross their mind that words pointing out the union of two bodies with delight could be used as swearwords or insults. I think that our swearwords are only the reflect of who we are: aggressive neurotics. This aggressiveness linked to the sex comes from many centuries of frustration, which comes from our Judeo-Christian culture.
Some people see the Indian as a "primitive brute", and some see in him a "noble ecologist savage". The Indian is neither of them. The Indian is simply a pragmatic and deeply religious man, who wonderfully adapted himself to his environment and to the hazards of his history.
Being an Indian is a state of mind, a certain relation with the Earth.
Washakié was the Shoshones' chief who took, when he was 70 years old, the 6 scalps of those who killed his wife and children. On February 20, 1900: he died and was buried with the honours of the American Army.
I would like to add that it is a pity for us that the USA have always refused the adhesion of the Indian Nations, who wished to found a State integrated to the United States of America.
We impoverished ourselves by not allowing some tribes to keep their territories and the freedom to live the lives they intended. There were a lot of whites (males or females) who preferred to live with the Indians: their increasing number made that Lincoln ordered a Law to punish these "betrayers".
The refusal of the "indianity" was, and is still, the fight of a material and trade world that does not tolerate another model of civilization: because it thinks that this different model threatens its power and interests.
6.02 Extract from: 500 YEARS OF AMERICAN INDIAN RESISTANCE
from Oh-Toh-Kin, vol.1 no. 1, winter/spring 1992
Calumet, interceding on Peace
It was not a «Discovery», but rather a holocaust of the American Indians!
"Until very recently, the native population rate generally admitted just before 1492 was around 10-15 million people. This figure is still admitted by the individuals or groups that see 1492 as the «Discovery», where only a few millions of Indians died -most of them on account of diseases".
Recent demographic data count a native population rate between 70 to 100 million people: of whom 10 millions in North America, 30 millions in Meso-America and 50-70 millions in South America: which demonstrates that the gentle techniques of these people allowed the life of big communities.
6.03 The ecological teaching of the primal People
While showing a "millenary" wisdom, the autochthon societies have always kept up very close relations with the environment. With a way of living highly influenced by the nature, these traditional societies could be used as a model to the modern societies, concerning the management and the rational use of the planet's ecosystem natural resources.
For the autochthon, the Earth is the mother of everyone because it feeds all the People living on it. In front of this feeding mother, it is vital that everybody shows responsibility and discernment with the use we do of it, all the more since the Man does not possess the Earth.
In the concept of circle, the autochthon considers that he has the same level of importance than the animal or the tree. All the elements of the creation possess a soul and are a part of this huge network of relationships that makes possible the communication between us. The existence and survival of each element must be a priority, because breaking a link of the network could generate the annihilation of the whole network. The autochthon understands that the future of the network relies on the respect of each of its components.
Only considering the economic plan, this approach can boil down to the analysis of this dilemma: the perpetually renewable natural resources of any preserved ecosystem always produces quality and quantity of products superior to any alternative created by "civilization": agriculture, breeding, aquaculture, or any intensive production. This is because we have to take into account the energy balance, and not only the financial deal.
Many scientific studies prove it... for the plants as well as for the animal.Nevertheless, natural resources are: scattered, seasonal, mobile, changing, hard to harvest, hard to stock; they are naturally decentralized and moving. The planning of the nature everywhere by the primal People aimed to do it in a gentle way, preserving the biodiversity (of which most of them were conscious). The "primitive" men succeded (at least since they could control the fire) in cultivating and adapting themselves to the nature, a point where our civilization failed.
The consequences of this mode of gentle exploitation were, unless some rare exceptions:The necessary dispersion of the human dwellings and a semi-nomad life: to harvest the resources where and when they are available.
The control of demography: by birth regulation (with des contraceptive and abortive plants) or other practices such as ritualized "wars".
The Manis are a People from the Krâa peninsula in Thaïlande and Malaysia, in a close contact since 1000 years with the Asian civilizations: but they refused to change their way of living. Their language ignores the words "war" and "murder". What can we do in the actual situation of human overpopulation, with the ecosystems approaching of their point breaks? Trying the eco-development?
Yes: but only where it is still feasible.and with what is still feasible: and so in France (a conservative country about the farmer traditons, with rich natural zones) and also other places in other countries could be suitable (but only if the men want it).
And in my opinion, even if all the truths are not good to be told, only a few small areas will be saved to prepare the passing to a new era: such as "human seeds" reservoirs, in a way.
Alas, there are too many inhabitants in our big cities and the biospehere is too much weakened: to make possible an effective better solution -applicable to all- everywhere. The opposite hypothesis would imply an extraordinary situation thrown topsy-turvy: I don't think it is possible to brutally accomplish such a thing in the actual system.
6.04 Wisdom of the primal People
The offering - San Idelfonso - picture by Edouard S. Curtis
Hotevilla, Arizona : Hopi People (Carolyn Tawangyoma, spokeswoman of the Sovereign Hopi Independant Nation, 10/1983.)"Everything that was created and we were given is very precious. We must protect these gifts and use them wisely, and also share them to keep the harmony between all of us."
"But we sometimes forget these gifts, which makes our quest for Peace extremely difficult."
"We are afraid that humanity already went too far, and that it completely forgot to be able to find this Peace again. During the eras of Life, the ancient Hopis have seen and experienced many things: such as the passing of a world ancient order to a world new order, by fault of a formidable disaster generated by the absurd actions of the Man who forgot the Creator's divine Laws".
Chiefs: pawnee,omahawk and War Eagle
"The Haudenosaunees, or Confederation of the 6 Iroquois Nations, form one of the oldest government of the world: still active today. Before the Europeans arrived in North America, our people was gathering as a council to decree the principles of a peaceful coexistence between the nations, as well as the right of the People to a continuous existence. The Europeans left our councils and travelled all over the world to preach our principles of justice and democracy they learnt from us: these principles had deep effects on the evolution of the Moder World...
Brothers and Sisters: Our Mother Earth is getting old today. It can't feed anymore the herds of wild animals that, long ago, shared this place with us, and a big part of the forest that used to be our home has disappeared. One century ago the forest was massacred to produce charcoal for the forges of the Industrial Revolution; Almost all the game was decimated by the farmers and sport hunters; Most of the birds were killed by the hunters and the pesticides (so common in this century). Many rivers carry the sticky and dirty waters coming from the emanations of the big urban centers widespread in the country. We can see that the politics of the "burnt land" has not disappeared.
Brothers and Sisters: We are worrying when we see the obvious reality before our eyes. The smokes of the industrial centers in the Midwest, around the big lakes, is a lethal cloud that returns to the land under the form of the acid rains that fall on the mounts Adirondack: and the fishes can't reproduce in these acid waters. In the high lands of the mounts Adirondack, the lakes are dead, there is no more fish."
"This people, who occupies the lands where we've been living for millenaries, don't show any love towards the life of this place.
Every year, they plant the same seeds on the same lands and then they must spray these seeds with poison to kil the insects that naturally infest their fields. They neither want to alternate their cultures, nor let the soil resting. Their pesticides kill the birds, and the poisons pollute the surface waters.
They also water with weed killers the remainder of the plant life, and every year the trickling brings the poison of their fields until the waters that irrigate our teeritory, and then in all the waters of the world."
Brothers and Sisters: our ancestral territory today is polluted by various chemical dumps (...). Only a People, whose spirit is distorted over the capacity to perceive the truth, can behave this way: endangering the future generations of the humanity.
"Brothers and Sisters: we show you the Spiritual Way of the Rightness and the Reason. We want to bring to your minds and your reflection that humans are suposed to try to promote, above all, the whole of theother forms of life. We assert that peace is not only the absence of war, but also the continous effort to keep an harmonious existence between all the People, all the individuals, and between the humans and the others beings of this planet. We assert that a Spiritual Conscience is The Way of the Humanity Survival. We, who walk on the surface of Our Mother Earth, are only here for a short time. As human beings, we have the obligation to protect the life here, for the benefit of the future generations."
Brothers and Sisters: the Haudenosaunees are determinated to undertake any possible action able to stop the destruction of Our Mother Earth. On our territories, we continue to perform our duty of spiritual guardians of the Earth. As guardians, we can't remain with dangling arms while the future of the next generations is systematically destroyed: and we can't remain inactive...
We know that this will be a very long fight, and that there is no hope for us to win alone. To win and assuring the future, we must unite our forces and create a powerful unity with other people who think the same way we do. By these words, we commemorate 200 years of injustice and destruction of the world.
See the page of links about the Iroquois.
«We are here since the origin of the times,
Coming from the call of the Earth,
From the Gods' eyes that make us see and hear the words,
From the humidity of the angels who made the water,
The Earth is our paradise,
Our Word shines in the deep darkness;
They tried to damp our voice,
They snatched the land from our feet,
They diverted our rivers from their beds,
They don't ask our guardians for the permission to kill the trees and the animals,
To the wind and the sky, they tried to put bars to the sun and to our language,
The unsatisfied powerfuls want that we forget that we are a people,
They believed that we did not exist anymore,
We fell silent under the weight of misfortune,
We offer our history to the world,
We are not and will never be the image of oblivion,
We are not and will never be the people swallowed up by the time,
We are not and will never be the dusty temple of the History,
We are a symbol of peace opposed to hate,
The hate that isolated us and stolen our time,
And for ou time, for everybody's time,
We are here. »
Francisco Alvarez Quinones - José Antonio Reyes Matambres
"At least, we know this: the Earth does not belong to the Man; the Man belongs to the Earth. We know this. All the things are linked, such as the blood unting a same family. All the things are linked. Anything hapening to the Earth, happens to the children of the Earth. It is not the Man who wove the frame of life: he is just a thread of it. And everything he does to the frame, he does it to himself... This Earth is precious to Him, and harming the Earth is heaping despite upon His creator. The Whites will disappear too; and maybe earlier than the other tribes. If you contaminate your bed, and one night you will choke in your own excrements."
ous savons au moins ceci : la terre n'appartient pas à l'homme ; l'homme appartient à la terre. Cela nous le savons. Toutes choses se tiennent comme le sang qui unit une même famille. Toutes choses se tiennent. Tout ce qui arrive à la terre, arrive aux fils de la terre. Ce n'est pas l'homme qui a tissé la trame de la vie : il en est seulement un fil. Tout ce qu'il fait à la trame, il le fait à lui même... Cette terre Lui est précieuse, et nuire à la terre c'est accabler de mépris son Créateur. Les blancs aussi disparaîtront ; peut-être plus tôt que toutes les autres tribus. Contaminez votre lit, et vous suffoquerez une nuit dans vos propres excréments. "
"The White men should treat the animals of this Earth as his brothers... What are the men without animals? If all the animals disappeared, the men would die of a big solitude of spirit. As what happen to to the animals, will happen soon to the men. All the things are linked."
Indians of Californie
Admirable basket work by the Indians of California
Centre-Noth of Californie : The Wintu People"When a society considers the nature as imbued with integrity and perfection, with in addition the concviction of the shared history and of the spiritual unity than we can meet in the human relationships, there is nothing surprising that its members feel a deep empathy for the Earth's suffering when it is over-exploited or ill-treated.
During the last two centuries, the non-native People have intensely exploited the Wintus' traditional lands, in the North of California: by the gold-fever and copper exploitation, by the deforestation at a high scale in a commercial goal, by the construction of railroads, highways, and enormous hydro-electric dams generating huge artificial reservoirs.
The anarchic destructions of the mountains, the rivers and the forests that were presented as decisive stagess in the American progress. When all the Indians will be dead, the God will let the waters flowing from the North. Everybody will be swallowed up. And this will happen because the White Man never took care of the land, the stag or the bear.
When we, Indians, kill an animal, we tootally eat it. When we dig up the roots, we only dig a little bit. When we burn the grass to catch grasshoppers, we don't destroy the whole. We shake the trees to knock over the acorns and the pines. We don't cut the trees. And we only use the dead wood."
"But the White Men turn the soil, pull up the trees, and kill whatever is living. The tree says: "No, don't do that. It hurts." But they cut the tree and cut it up. (...) They cut the trees and pull up their roots. They cut up the trees. The trees suffer. Indians never maltreat anything. But the White Men destroy everything. They blow up the rocks and scatter them on the ground. The rock says: "No, don't do that. You are hurting me." But the White men don't listen to anything. When the Indians use the rock, they just take small parts for their kitchen. The White Men dig long and deep tunnels. They build roads. they dig as much as they want...
They don't care about the screams of the earth. (...)
See the page of the links about the real importance of the genocide of the American Indians.
6.05 The primal People's excellent techniques of management of the nature
Another form of an excellent and durable productivity
because resulting of a respectful relationship towards the Earth.
The ancient cultures of the primal people often "cultivated" and fit out the land very gently (at least, where inetrventions were necessary, which is not true everywhere) that the European explorers didn't see, or didn't understand -above all, they did not want to understand- that what they were taking for a "wild" and "hostile" nature was, in fact, mainly the work of the native people they despised.
Here are two examples:A - An example in the Amazonian Bolivia: aquaculture, fit out road, light agriculture. The archeological site of these gentle pre-colombian techniques covers 500 km sq.
Extract from the magazine "Sciences et Avenir":«Apparently hostile and not favourable to welcome a large population, the Amazonian tropical forest would have sheltered something that looks like an fishpond. American and Bolivian archeologists think that before the Spanish arrived, the Indians Baures des Llanos de Mojos had transformed this tropical savannah into a place of fish breeding. Then, the researchers interpreted some traces of work and modifications of the landscape they observed on a surface of 500 km sq., in the region near the Brazilian border called Llanos de Mojos. Dr. Clark Erickson, who lead these researches, describes a complex network of basins and canals that would have been used has fish traps. This environment organization, at least dating from the 16th century, who have allowed to feed an important population before the Conquistadores arrived. These conclusions are published in "Nature" magazine.»
Again in Bolivia, at Llanos de Moxos, there are prehistorical artifical terraces (20 m x 600 m - height from 0.2 à 1 m) intended to a light agriculture:
Other examples of roads (from 4 to 6 meters wide, and from 2 to 15 km long) and canals in the region of Baures, which were abandonned:
B - Some examples in North America of similar fish breeding installations that existed before the White arrived to North America:
Prehistoric Fishweirs in Eastern North America, Master's Thesis by Allen Lutins
« Fish weirs, or semi-permanent traps aimed at the exploitation of aquatic resources, occur throughout the eastern seaboard of North America. Many, perhaps hundreds, are of prehistoric construction. Their existence is virtually unrecognized in the archaeological literature for eastern North America, potentially resulting in inadequate reconstructions of subsistence and settlement patterns in this region. This thesis is an attempt to synthesize the information for all known prehistoric weirs in eastern North America, and to analyze that information for its importance in reconstructing prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns. »
See the page of links about these works.
These permanent fittings to fish are far to be exceptions, as there are everywhere in Northern America:KNOWN PREHISTORIC WEIRS IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA :
Midwestern U.S. · St. Lawrence Drainage · Iroquois culture area · New England · Maine · New Hampshire · Massachusetts · Connecticut · Rhode Island · New York (excluding Iroquois area) · Middle Atlantic · Pennsylvania · New Jersey · Delaware · Maryland · Virginia · North Carolina · South Carolina · Alabama · Tennessee · Georgia · Kentucky · Mississippi · Florida
This type of fitting could be found everywhere around the world:« Based on observations from Alaska, Australia, Japan, and southern Africa, weirs seem to conform to one of three basic designs: The first is the tidal weir. The second is a "maze-like" arrangement of walls; the design is such that fish easily find their way in, but can not easily escape. This design is usually used in estuarine areas, and so may be defined as a type of tidal weir. The third is an obstructing wall which funnels fish to a particular point at which they may be trapped or removed (Godwin 1988:52). This is the form used in all riverine structures. There are perhaps other types of weirs which do not fall into these basic categories, but they are rare, and there are no reports of them from eastern North America . While conforming to these three basic designs, weirs are constructed with a great diversity of specific shapes and materials. »
These examples -in Amazonia «the wild land above all» and for the «nomad hunters with feathers»- show very well the stupidity of your western complex of superiority that is founded on this simplistic scheme of chronological "progression": 1. Primitive People/hunters-fishermen/nomads or semi-nomads/arrears
2. Neolithic Revolution, invention of the agriculture ...
3. Foundation of the cities, civilization
4. Antique civilized People from Eurasia/farmers/breeders/townspeople/developed
4. Actual Western wolrd.
But this duality and this chronological succession...
as attractive and practical they can be, are completely wrong!
These People's work was wonderfully adapted to each specific situation and biotope; it was spread out on millenaries: adopting multiple forms of ingenious intervention -on flora and fauna- that were very spaced and conceived to procure varied seasonal resources. Alas, they were, and still are, not studied enough: so they remain unknown.
This subject should be seriously studied in order to be applicated in future eco-developments projects.
Towards a right of existence for the children of the Earth.
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Updated September 1st, 2005